What does the Genetic Modified Organism represent?The Genetic Modified Organism (GMO) is every organism exception the human been, whose genetic material has been modified in another way than through natural recombination;
What does the modern biotechnology represent?Through modern biotechnology we see the applications “in vitro” of techniques of recombination of nucleic acids and the techniques witch are based on the fusion on cellules of an organism with different taxonomic status, witch exclude natural physiological barriers of reproduction or genetic recombination and doesn’t constitute traditional techniques of selection;
Which are the domains of utilization of Genetic Modified Organisms?The main domains of utilization of the GMOs are:
- human alimentation (for example the specie cymosinei. Origin from the beef organism, incorporate into the genome of the bacteria. E. Coli produce this product
witch is used in the production of cheese);
- animal food (for example the triptophan);
- in the process of the amelioration of species of plants (corn resistant at high doses of herbicides, plants resistant at droughts);
- for the in good of alimentation quality of the agriculture products;
- for better technological indices of the agriculture products;
- in the process of scientific exploration (for example the exploration of species expression mod);
- bio- and phitoremedy (bacteria capable to dissolve hydrocarbure or plants capable to accumulate hard metals);
- medicine (production of vaccines);
Witch risks are provoked by utilization of GMOs?The main risks invocated by utilization of GMOs are: Alimentation risks:
Specialists, in general lines, came to the conclusion that the risk of specie transfer through nutritive way is null. But often, as arguments of alimentation risk provoked by the genetic modified organisms is shown the risk of toxicity and allergic risk from the protein produced by such kinds of organisms, especially plants. For example, a gene of a specie of Brazilian nuts witch is responsible for the high content of metionine from fruits was transferred into the genome of fodder soya. After it was proved that the produce of this nut genome it’s allergic for the human been.
He is connected with “genome of interests” (genomes witch the human been modifies in his interest). Some of are warred about think that modified genomes could pass through the combination of wild plants. In case of a major advantage of modified plants determinate by the new genome can appear a real danger for the biological diversity of natural ecosystems. Risk for the medium, also could present such kinds of genomes called marker (genomes witch determine the resistance or toleration for the antibiotics). These genomes when they pass to the bacteria genome or pathogenic viruses for people and animals could provoke a major danger for their health.
Biotechnology risks in not being implemented by poor countries, in the way of development. Many are warred of activations or big agrochemical firms, which’s have large financial resources and witch use it for promoting their economical interests.
Genetically manipulations put in evidence bioethics problem. Being in general lines morally accepted at plants, bacteria and viruses sometimes aren’t legitimist from the philosophic point of view or religious at animals and in specially at people.
What kind of agricultural species where genetically modified?
Genetically modified plants are: cotton, flax, chicory, corn, rape, papaya, potato, soya, sugar beet, tomatoes, tobacco, wheat and squash.
What legislation is regulating the using of GMO?1. The Cartagena Protocol ratified by the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova through the Law nr.1381-XV from 11.10.02
2. Law on Biosafety nr. 755-XV from 21.12.01
3. The Government Decision of the Republic of Moldova nr.603 from 20.05.03 on establishment of the National Biosafety Committee
4. The Government Decision of the Republic of Moldova nr. 1153 from 25.09.03 on adoption of the Regulation regarding authorization of activities connected with trials, production, use and distribution of GMOs th
What responsible bodies of the Republic of Moldova have abilities with the implementation of the national legislation on biosafety? To ensure the implementing of national legislation it wad founded an institutional framework made of: - National Biosafety Committee
- Scientific competent organizations
- National Focal point
- Sections, directions or specialists witch activates in central authorities for ecology, agriculture and food industry, health, protection of consumers, as well as departments, services and other governmental bodies which have responsibilities in the field regulated by the Law on Biosafety.
Whatis the structure of the National Biosafety Committee? National Committee is organized and functions as an interdepartmental organism and it is formed from 13 members:
- 2 members from the central authority frame for ecology, which exert the function of the head and respectively, of the secretary in the National Committee;
- 4 members from the Academy of Sciences of Moldova;
- 3 members from other scientific and university institutions with biological and medicinal profile;
- by a member from the central authorities for economy, agriculture and food industry, health, as well as one specialist in domain from nongovernmental organizations, whose activity hold of environmental protection.
What are the attributions the National Biosafety Committee has? National Biosafety Committee is the National competent body which exercises authorization tasks and control of the settle activity by Law on Biosafety.
For this purpose National Committee:
a) analyze notifies, documentations and other written information, sent by the users, importer and/or exporter in connection with the settle activities by the Law on Biosafety;
b) elaborate reports, syntheses and information in well-formed with the stipulations and procedures established by law, with the settlement and procedures of UE and others international juridical documents, where Republic of Moldova is part, which adopt and send, by case, national authority, international special organisms, suited to the international procedures;
c) established ways and procedures through which could insure execution of there responsibilities, together with the national contact point, with the national competent scientific authorities, for public awareness in concordance with Law on Biosafety dispositions;
d) cooperate with the national competent scientific authorities, from whom they could ask, by case, document analysis, to formulate there point of view and to work out of some notice;
e) coordinate and insure editing of genetic modified organism through modern biotechnological technique Register, which are obtained, experimented, introduced in the environing medium and on the country market;
f) established content of forms for the documents with which operate;
g) participate at the reunion and national and international manifestations in the domain;
h) execute other tasks which are in its ability in concordance with Law on Biosafety, other normative national and international documents.
What is the authorization of activities regarding GMO?The activity authorization connected to GMOs it’s an official document, elaborated by the National Biosafety Committee, which attest holder right in authorization for unfolding for a determinate period his activity which is indicated in this, with the respecting of conditions of the authorization.
What kind of activities connected to GMO is authorized?National Biosafety Committee exerts attributions of the authorizations and checking next activities:
a) obtaining, multiplication, testing and using in isolate conditions, for different kinds of purpose, of microorganisms, of plants and animals genetically modified through modern biotechnological techniques;
b) introducing in medium and on the market of the genetically modified organisms through modern biotechnological techniques, including of any alive structure which is capable to reproduce an organism, like bulbs, cuttings, pollen, spore and others like these;
c) no intention liberation in medium of GMOs;
d) deliberate introduction in medium and on the market of processed produce which contain genetic modified organisms and/or nonliving components from the living organisms genetically modified in processed state;
e) all the types of the research of the genetically modified organisms, including those from the laboratory, clinics, by plain, by experiment in production;
f) deliberate operations of import/export with genetically modified organisms and with produce resulted from this kind of organisms;
g) no intentional shipment out of country of the genetically modified organisms;
h) depositary, inhumation, annihilation of the genetically modified organisms and/or of produce resulted from these organisms, using of the refuse resulted from the utilization of modern biotechnological techniques.
What kind of activities don’t fell under the national legislation on Biosafety?Don’t fell under the national legislation regarding biological security of organisms obtained through traditional techniques and methods of genetics modification like: process of appearance of the mutations, cellular fusion, including vegetal and bacterial cell body, auto clone (with the condition that these won’t use acid molecules from recombined nucleic acids), purificate produce, including pharmaceutics products for people and vegetation, shipment activity, indifferent of ways, so as the operations of commercialization and of import/export which do the object of other normative documents.
Who has the right to activate in the field of Biosafety?For activity in domains settled by the legislation in the field of Biosafety are permitted:
a) physic person, who’s stare of health and professional prepare must insure the security of the activity in domain;
b) juridical person, which have places, technique, equipment and stuff capable to insure activity in conditions of security for human health and for medium.
Which are the criteria’s confidentially? Domain of activity connected to GMOs present a profitable business and confidentially is connected to her with the exception of cases when these informations are necessary for evaluating of risk on the human health and medium. User must show in notification information which has to bi considered confidentially. Decision regarding information which will bi considered confidentially National Committee will take under consulting with the user and will inform him. Can’t be considered confidentially next information:
a) general characteristics of microorganisms/organisms genetically modified, name and address of the user, purpose and place of using;
b) the risk class where is joint utilization in isolate conditions and majors of isolations;
c) study conclusions of evaluation of risk for human health and medium;
d) methods and plans of monitoring, as well as majors which could be used in case of accident.